Paediatric Medicine deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions affecting infants, children, and adolescents, from birth to age 18. Paediatricians diagnose and treat specific health issues, diseases and disorders related to the various stages of growth and development. They work very closely with the patient and their family. Paediatricians working in general hospitals in Ireland mainly practice General Paediatrics. A General Paediatrician must be competent in the prevention, diagnosis and management of a wide range of diseases. They must be able to deal with the acute presentation of illness affecting one or more organ systems at the same time. Paediatricians in tertiary children’s hospitals (e.g. Our Lady’s Children’s Hospital Crumlin) tend to have a specific subspecialty interest, such as Paediatric Immunology or Paediatric Metabolic Medicine. Neonatology, a subspecialty of Paediatrics, deals with the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn infant. It is usually practiced in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A trainee in General Paediatrics must be competent in the prevention, diagnosis and management of a wide range of diseases and in hospital based interventional procedures. Above all the General Paediatrician should have the competencies to deal with acute presentation of illness affecting concurrently one or more organ systems and the administration of all necessary immediate care. These competencies must relate to all aspects of Paediatrics including the special needs in both treatment and immediate care of the neonate.